Hypersonic Missile News

Başlatan Alkyone, Kas 29, 2017, 07:07 ÖÖ

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China builds world's fastest wind tunnel to test weapons that could strike US within 14 minutes

China is building the world's fastest wind tunnel to simulate hypersonic flight at speeds of up to 12 kilometres per second.

A hypersonic vehicle flying at this speed from China could reach the west coast of the United States in less than 14 minutes.
Zhao Wei, a senior scientist working on the project, said researchers aimed to have the facility up and running by around 2020 to meet the pressing demand of China's hypersonic weapon development programme.
"It will boost the engineering application of hypersonic technology, mostly in military sectors, by duplicating the environment of extreme hypersonic flights, so problems can be discovered and solved on the ground," said Zhao, a deputy director of the State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gas Dynamics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing.
The ground tests will significantly reduce the risk of failure when test flights of hypersonic aircraft start.
The world's most powerful wind tunnel at present is America's LENX-X facility in Buffalo, New York state, which operates at speeds of up to 10 kilometres per second - 30 times the speed of sound.

Hypersonic aircraft are defined as vehicles that travel at speeds of Mach 5, five times the speed of sound, or above.
The US military tested HTV-2, a Mach 20 unmanned aircraft in 2011 but the hypersonic flight lasted only a few minutes before the vehicle crashed into the Pacific Ocean.
In March, China conducted seven successful test flights of its hypersonic glider WU-14, also known as the DF-ZF, at speeds of between Mach 5 and Mach 10.
Other countries including Russia, India and Australia have also tested some early prototypes of the aircraft, which could be used to deliver missiles including nuclear weapons.
"China and the US have started a hypersonic race," said Wu Dafang, professor at the school of aeronautic science and engineering at Beihang University in Beijing who received a national technology award for the invention of a new heat shield used on hypersonic vehicles in 2013.

Wu has worked on the development of hypersonic cruise missiles, a near space vehicle, high-speed drones and other possible weapons for the People's Liberation Army.
He said there were a number of hypersonic wind tunnels in mainland China which had helped ensure the high success rate of its hypersonic weapon tests.
The new wind tunnel will be "one of the most powerful and advanced ground test facilities for hypersonic vehicles in the world", said Wu, who was not involved in the project.
"This is definitely good news for us. I look forward to its completion," he added.
In the new tunnel there will be a test chamber with room for relatively large aircraft models with a wing span of almost three metres.

To generate an airflow at extremely high speeds, the researchers will detonate several tubes containing a mixture of oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen gases to create a series of explosions that can discharge one gigawatt of power within a split second, according to Zhao.
This is more than half of the total power generation capacity of the Daya Bay nuclear power plant in Guangdong.
The shock waves, channelled into the test chamber through a metallic tunnel, will envelope the prototype vehicle and increase the temperature over its body to 8,000 Kelvins, or 7,727 degrees Celsius, Zhao said.
That is nearly 50 per cent hotter than the surface of the Sun.
The hypersonic vehicle therefore must be covered by special materials with extremely efficient cooling systems inside the airframe to dissipate the heat, otherwise it could easily veer off the course or disintegrate during a long-distance flight.
The new tunnel would also be used to test the scramjet, a new type of jet engine designed specifically for hypersonic flights. Traditional jet engines are not capable of handling air flows at such speeds.

Zhao said the construction of the new facility would be led by the same team that built JF12, a hypervelocity denotation-driven shock tunnel in Beijing capable of duplicating flight conditions at speeds ranging from Mach 5 to Mach 9 at altitudes between 20 and 50 kilometres.
Jiang Zonglin, lead developer of the JF12, won the annual Ground Test Award issued by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics last year for advancing "state-of-the-art large-scale hypersonic test facilities".
Jiang's JF12 design "uses no moving parts and generates a longer test-duration and a higher energy flow than more traditionally designed tunnels", according to the American institute.

According to state media reports, the JF12 tunnel has been operating at full capacity with a new test every two days since its completion in 2012 as the pace of hypersonic weapon development increased significantly in recent years.
In an article published in the domestic journal National Science Review last month, Jiang said the impact of hypersonic flights on society could be "revolutionary".
"With practical hypersonic aeroplanes, a two-hour flight to anywhere in the world will be possible" while the cost of space travel could be cut by 99 per cent with reusable spacecraft technology, Jiang wrote.
"Hypersonic flight is, and in the foreseeable future will be, the driver of national security, and civilian transportation and space access," he added.
The escape velocity, or the minimum speed needed to leave the Earth, is 11 kilometres per second.

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2120072/china-builds-worlds-fastest-wind-tunnel-test-weapons Mesajı Paylaş
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Introducing the DF-17: China's Newly Tested Ballistic Missile Armed With a Hypersonic Glide Vehicle

An image of a hypersonic glider-like object broadcast by Chinese state media in October 2017. No known images of the DF-17's hypersonic glide vehicle exist in the public domain.

China carried out the first flight-tests of a new kind of ballistic missile with a hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV) in November, The Diplomat has learned.

According to a U.S. government source who described recent intelligence assessments on the People's Liberation Army Rocket Force (PLARF) on the condition of anonymity, China recently conducted two tests of a new missile known as the DF-17.

The first test took place on November 1 and the second test took place on November 15. The November 1 test was the first Chinese ballistic missile test to take place after the conclusion of the first plenum of the Communist Party of China's 19th Party Congress in October.

During the November 1 test flight, which took place from the Jiuquan Space Launcher Center in Inner Mongolia, the missile's payload flew to a range of approximately 1,400 kilometers with the HGV flying at a depressed altitude of around 60 kilometers following the completion of the DF-17's ballistic and reentry phases.

HGVs begin flight after separating from their ballistic missile boosters, which follow a standard ballistic trajectory to give the payload vehicle sufficient altitude.

Parts of the U.S. intelligence community assess that the DF-17 is a medium-range system, with a range capability between 1,800 and 2,500 kilometers. The missile is expected to be capable of delivering both nuclear and conventional payloads and may be capable of being configured to deliver a maneuverable reentry vehicle instead of an HGV.

Most of the missile's flight time during the November 1 flight test was powered by the HGV during the glide phase, the source said. The missile successfully made impact at a site in Xinjiang Province, outside Qiemo, "within meters" of the intended target, the source added. The duration of the HGV's flight was nearly 11 minutes during that test.

The HGV payload that China tested in November was specifically designed for the DF-17, the source told The Diplomat, while noting that parts of the U.S. intelligence community assess that the DF-17 is heavily based on the PLARF's DF-16B short-range ballistic missile, which is already deployed.

"The missile is explicitly designed for operational HGV implementation and not as a test bed," the source said, describing U.S. intelligence assessments of the DF-17. This was "the first HGV test in the world using a system intended to be fielded operationally," the source added.

The DF-17, per current U.S. intelligence assessments, is expected to reach initial operating capability around 2020.

"Although hypersonic glide vehicles and missiles flying non-ballistic trajectories were first proposed as far back as World War II, technological advances are only now making these systems practicable," Vice Admiral James Syring, director of the U.S. Missile Defense Agency, remarked in June, during a testimony before the U.S. House Armed Services Committee.

Outside these missiles, China has conducted seven known tests of experimental hypersonic glide vehicles. These tests took place between 2014 and 2016.

Tests of the DF-17--the first missile designed for the operational deployment of an HGV with the PLARF--followed the first-ever appearance of a physical hypersonic glider test object in Chinese state media in October.

It's unclear if the object bears any relation to the tested DF-17, but the images released in October are thought to be the first of any glider-like object in Chinese state media.

In addition to China, the United States and Russia are also developing hypersonic glider technology, but neither country is known to have flight-tested a system in a configuration intended for operational deployment to date.

Hypersonic gliders, by virtue of their low-altitude flight, present challenges to existing radar sensor technology enabling missile defenses. By flying at a low altitude instead of reentering from a much higher apogee on a ballistic trajectory, adversary radars would detect HGVs with less time for an interception to take place before the payload can reach its target.

HGVs, however, are considerably slower in the final stages of their flight than most reentry vehicles on a ballistic trajectory. This may leave them vulnerable to interception by advanced terminal point defense systems.

In a report detailing new ballistic and cruise missile threats to the U.S. released this year, the U.S. National Air and Space Intelligence Center observed that "Hypersonic glide vehicles delivered by ballistic missile boosters are an emerging threat that will pose new challenges to missile defense systems."

https://thediplomat.com/2017/12/introducing-the-df-17-chinas-newly-tested-ballistic-missile-armed-with-a-hypersonic-glide-vehicle/ Mesajı Paylaş
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Russia Plans to Turn Its Navy into One Giant Hypersonic Missile

If everything goes according to plan, sometime in the mid-2020s the Russian Navy will adopt an anti-ship cruise missile called the Zircon. It's a highly maneuverable and hypersonic cruise missile -- meaning a weapon capable of traveling at speeds in excess of Mach 5 due to its advanced scramjet engine.

Scramjets kick in once the missile has already accelerated to high speeds with the use of a conventional solid-fuel engine. Once zooming through the air, the scramjet sucks in and compresses air already traveling at supersonic speeds to propel the vehicle further at velocities lesser engines can't handle.

Such missiles travel so fast, designing the vehicles and onboard guidance systems to withstand the heat and friction caused by meeting air resistance at Mach 5 and beyond is one of the biggest challenges in hypersonic development.

Provided Russia can figure out those engineering issues, and they are significant, then it will field one of the deadliest anti-ship missiles in the world. There have been several tests of the Zircon already beginning in April 2017 -- although a purported maximum speed of Mach 8 is likely exaggerated -- and Russia produces first-rate missiles on par with, and arguably better than, anyone else in the world.

No wonder the U.S. military is racing to develop new long-range anti-ship missiles and hypersonic weapons of its own.

The Zircon could pack a 650-pound warhead, and a small radar signature and extreme speed will make the Zircon difficult for air-defense sensors to detect and for shipborne anti-missile countermeasures to intercept. Russian press reports have a habit of sensationally promoting the Zircon as nigh-invulnerable, however, the combination of speed and maneuverability present a serious threat.

"These features enable such missiles to penetrate most missile defenses and to further compress the timelines for a response by a nation under attack," the California-based think tank RAND Corporation noted in a recent study.

There's another interesting fact about the Zircon that is equally important to the missile's raw capabilities -- the type of launcher.

Warships have limited space to fit the vertical-launch cells which fit hypersonic missiles and descend deep into the ship -- they generally must be designed from the beginning for the task. For this, the Russians are developing the Zircon to fit inside the 3S-14 VLS system which also launches the supersonic anti-ship Onyx cruise missile along with anti-ship and land-attack versions of the subsonic Kalibr.

The bad news for the U.S. Navy is that the Russian Navy sticks the 3S-14 VLS inside almost everything, from tiny corvettes to lumbering heavy cruisers.

"This means that most current Russian submarines, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, and even corvettes will be capable of firing any of these three missiles," O.E. Watch, the monthly newsletter of the U.S. Army's Foreign Military Studies Office, noted in October 2017. "This practice is an example of Russia's current line of effort for modularity and interoperability."

"Undoubtedly, this shift is due to economic necessities that require a much smaller Navy than Soviet times when specialization was practical," the newsletter continued. "Russia has not only switched to multirole vessels to get the most out of every defense dollar, but has also enforced interoperability with certain Ground Forces and Aerospace Troops elements."

Thus, even if the Russian Navy is practically a coastal defense force at this point, it's one with impressive reach.

http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/russia-plans-turn-its-navy-one-giant-hypersonic-missile-23835 Mesajı Paylaş
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Russia develops high-precision hypersonic weapons

Russia's leading missile manufacturer Tactical Missile Corporation (TMC) said Wednesday that it is developing new systems, including high-precision hypersonic weapons, in response to the challenges of modern warfare.

"Since the U.S. concept of a rapid global strike is based on the use of high-precision hypersonic weapons, we should focus in response on the development of both systems of defense against such weapons and of high-speed weapons with increased range and accuracy, also immune to electronic interference," TMC General Director Boris Obnosov said in an interview with Interfax news agency.

He recalled that the Russian government had chosen TMC as the leading developer of hypersonic weapons, and its enterprises in cooperation with various scientific organizations are exploring ballistics of future armaments, materials for their creation, engine specifics, guidance systems and other on-board systems.

Obnosov said he believes that those who first master these technologies will have serious advantages in many areas and not just in military ones. But for this, a technological breakthrough is needed, which the corporation expected to reach in the early 2020s.

Under the U.S. concept of Prompt Global Strike, hypersonic weapons should be developed to be able to deliver a prompt precision-guided conventional strike anywhere in the world.

Enterprises of the corporation are also working on high-precision missiles for Russia's fifth generation Su-57 aircraft and are about to start test-launches of those missiles, Obnosov said.

In addition, TMC is planning to complete tests of the newest torpedo for the Russian Navy by the end of the year, he said.

TMC, set up in 2002, consists of 18 leading Russian enterprises of the defense industry, producing missile systems and their components for the Army, Navy and the Aerospace Forces, as well as a range of non-military products.

http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-01/24/c_136921832.htm Mesajı Paylaş
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